George Orwells Animal Farm explains how the pigs use of control techniques, such as propaganda, distractions, and fear help them in controlling the lower animals.
One of the control techniques Used is Propaganda. The Propaganda Used is fallacies or false information. For example; On Sunday mornings Squealer, holding down a long strip of paper with his trotter, would read out to them lists of food-stuff that had increased by 200%, 300%, or 500% as the case might be.(p.61) This made the other animals think that they were improving the food supply even if they did not understand a word the pigs were saying. Other propaganda that was commonly used was the return of Jones. The animals thought of Jones as the enemy, he represented the starvation and slavery of the animals. So it was understandable that the animals would fear the return of their enemy. Certainly the animals did not want Jones back; if the holding of debates on Sunday mornings was liable to bring him back then the debates must be stopped. (p.37) The cancellation of the Sunday meetings was only one of the many actions taken to stop the return of Jones. Rumors of Snowballs visits to the farm and causing mischief made a great excuse for things gone wrong. It was first used when the windmill was blown down by a storm. The pigs used Snowball as a scapegoat so the animals would strive harder to rebuild the windmill to prove to Snowball that their spirit would not be broken so easily. This was only one of the techniques used by the pigs to control the lower animals.
Distractions were also a major part in the pigs scheme. Overwork was most commonly used throughout The Book. There were times when it seemed to the animals that they worked longer hours and fed no better than they had in Jones day.(p.61) The pigs tried to distract the animals by giving them more work so they would not notice other things going on, such as the changing of the rules. Near the end of The Book, spontaneous demonstrations are held on the farm. The pigs think them up to keep the animals spirits up and to remind them all of what they have accomplished. At the appointed time the animals would leave their work and march around the precedents of the farm in a military formation with the pigs leading, then the horses, then the cows, then the sheep, and then the poultry.(p.77) Moses the Raven would talk about a place way up in the sky called Sugarcandy Mountain. It was a place where the animals went when they died. It was like animal heaven. Many of these distractions were able to keep the animals preoccupied while the pigs changed the laws and other dreadful things.
The fear factor technique was one of the most successful. The dogs were constantly growling and barking to intimidate the other animals. The pigs thus gained authority and obedience from the other animals. For example Suddenly the dogs sitting round Napoleon let out deep menacing growls, and the pigs fell silent and sat down again.(p.37) The pigs also used public executions to frighten the animals into confessing things they had never done. They were just so afraid that they were intimidated into confessing to crimes. One of the most feared objects on the farm was the whip which represented Jones abusive authority. So when the whips were brought back, and the pigs carried them, the other animals knew who was now in charge. The pigs were able to put fear in the animals hearts by using these dreadful techniques, including executions.
Animal Farm is related to the actions of the Russian Government. George Orwell was trying to tell us how ludicrous the government system is and how we are taken advantage of.