The Republic is a text by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato, written in the form of a Socratic dialogue. The dialogue begins as a discussion defining justice, but soon describes a hypothetical city that might possess justice. Socrates describes a utopian society that is communal, stratified and fair, ruled by wise "philosopher kings." Socrates discusses the degradation of society through timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny. The Allegory of the Cave presents a philosophical discrepancy between appearances and true forms and his Myth of Er describes consequences in the afterlife.