Ethics is a philosophical treatise by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza. Beginning with a set of axioms and definitions, Spinoza rejects many of Descartes' assertions, including the notion of mind/body dualism, free will and an overall trust in self-knowledge and perception. Spinoza argues that God is equivalent to the entire natural world, including humans, and that mind and body are simply different perspectives of the same object. The treatise also examines emotions and passions, claiming reason is the path to virtue and God.
Nicomachean Ethics is an ethical treatise by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. In contrast to Plato, who deduces his conclusions from concepts, Aristotle comes upon his beliefs through a ground-up approach, approaching the question of what is good by examining the choices that good people agree upon. Aristotle discusses how the good life is attained by performing righteous actions to build good habits to build good character and the highest virtues. Aristotle believes in the "golden mean"--a lifestyle of balance, and the individual cultivation of virtue.