Civilization and Its Discontents argues that society was conceived in order to minimize the displeasure caused by living with other people, but has resulted in people unwittingly becoming neurotic. In order for a society to function it must impose laws that repress the individual's destructive death-drive, thanatos, causing natural aggression to be forced back on the ego in the form of guilt. Writing after World War I, Freud directs his analysis towards humanity as a whole, wondering how scientific advancement and this repression will play out culturally and politically.

Summary of Madness and Civilization by Michel Foucault

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