Ethics is a philosophical treatise by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza. Beginning with a set of axioms and definitions, Spinoza rejects many of Descartes' assertions, including the notion of mind/body dualism, free will and an overall trust in self-knowledge and perception. Spinoza argues that God is equivalent to the entire natural world, including humans, and that mind and body are simply different perspectives of the same object. The treatise also examines emotions and passions, claiming reason is the path to virtue and God.

Summary of Ethics by Benedictus de Spinoza

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